On Oct. 12, 1979, Super Typhoon Tip's central pressure dropped to 870 mb (25.69 inches Hg), the lowest sea-level pressure ever observed on Earth, according to NOAA. Peak wind gusts reached 190 mph (306 kph) while the storm churned over the western Pacific.
Besides having unsurpassed intensity, Super Typhoon Tip is also remembered for its massive size. Tip's diameter of circulation spanned approximately 1,380 miles (2,220 km), setting a record for the largest storm on Earth. The storm's huge diameter was exactly the same as the distance from New York City to Dallas.
A total of 40 U.S. Air Force aircraft reconnaissance missions flew into Typhoon Tip, making it one of the most closely monitored tropical cyclones, according to a post-analysis written by George Dunnavan and John Diercks.
Typhoon Tip slowly weakened before making landfall in southern Japan on Oct. 19, 1979. However, the typhoon was still the most intense to hit Japan's main island of Honshu in more than a decade. Tip claimed the lives of 86 people and injured hundreds of others.
The extreme winds of Tip knocked over a gasoline storage tank, causing an explosion and fire that spread rapidly through a U.S. Marine Corps camp at Mt. Fuji. The Associated Press reported that one person was killed and dozens of others were injured.
Extensive flooding destroyed more than 20,000 homes in Japan, while hundreds of mudslides occurred.
High-rise buildings in Tokyo swayed from the high winds as the typhoon struck.
Image of Typhoon Tip at its strongest on Oct. 12, 1979, from NOAA.
Matthew has become a hurricane in the Caribbean and may approach the U.S. during next week.
It will feel like an extended winter for those living from the northern Plains to the eastern U.S., as cold and snowy conditions last longer than normal.
Persistent downpours will raise the flood risk in part of the mid-Atlantic into Friday night, while rain will spread over the balance of the northeastern United States into the weekend.
Millions of people across the U.S. could be exposed to drinking water contaminated with chemicals from firefighting foam, according to a recent study.
The final day of September will bring a rare lunar event that hasn’t occurred since March of 2014, a Black Moon.
The holiday weekend will start on an unsettled note, but the weather should improve by Day of German Unity celebrations on Monday.
Johnstown, PA (1993)
Light snow in the city did not accumulate but up to 3" accumulated at the airport.
Goldsboro, NC (1999)
30" of rain in September.
U.S./Quebec border (1835)
Heavy snow; Hatley, P.Q. received 10 inches. Kelkenny, NH had 6 inches.