Willis Carrier submitted drawings of the first modern air conditioning system on July 17, 1902.
Carrier, an apprentice engineer at the Buffalo Forge Company, Buffalo, N.Y., was working to solve a problem that affected the quality of printing for their client Sackett-Wilhelms Lithographing and Publishing Company, Brooklyn, N.Y., according to a press release from Carrier.
Inside of the printing plant, the heat and humidity, along with the heat of the printing machines, were causing the paper used for color magazine printing to expand and contract. The changes to the paper kept the colors from being aligned properly and the ink was not drying properly. Sackett-Wilhelms was in danger of losing the business of one of their biggest clients.
A solution to the heat and humidity problem became the responsibility of Carrier. He came up with the brilliant idea to circulate cold water rather than steam through heating coils in a machine he used to test heaters.
By balancing the temperature of the coil surface and the rate of airflow, Carrier was able to pull the air temperature down to the right dew-point temperature in the printing factory.
Carrier's design was credited as the first to address four basic functions necessary for air conditioning. An air conditioner must: 1. control temperature, 2. control humidity, 3. control air circulation, and 4. cleanse the air.
After the first appearance of Carrier's air conditioner drawings in 1902, the air conditioner has revolutionized the comfort of people in many different activities.
This timeline from Carrier highlights some of the major impacts of air conditioning on society.
1902- First application of modern mechanical air conditioning, Sackett-Wilhelms
printing plant, Brooklyn, N.Y.
1914- First application of air conditioning in a residence - Charles Gates mansion,
1922- Carrier invents centrifugal refrigeration system (chiller)
1924- First department store air conditioned, J.L. Hudson's, Detroit, Mich.
1925- Movie theaters cooled: Grauman's Theater, Los Angeles, Calif., Rivoli Theater,
1928-29- Chambers of the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate air conditioned
1932- Carrier Room Weathermaker introduced for cooling residences
1946- First public bus air conditioned, San Antonio, Texas
1992- Carrier named a partner in EPA's Green Lights program to reduce energy use
1993- Carrier ceases manufacture of CFC-based chillers in the U.S. - two years
before the deadline established by the Clean Air Act
1994- First non-ozone-depleting, chlorine-free centrifugal chiller and residential air
conditioner introduced by Carrier
1998 George Washington's Mount Vernon cooled by Carrier
1999 First HVAC manufacturer to sell window/room air conditioning units over the
2002 Carrier celebrates the 100-year anniversary of Willis Carrier's discovery of air
The Rivoli Theater in New York City boasts that it is "cooled by refrigeration" in this photograph from the 1920s, courtesy of Carrier.
The innovations of Willis Carrier on that day in July 1902, bringing air conditioning technology to the public, have improved the lives of countless millions of people worldwide in the heat of summer.
Smoke created hazy, orange views in Los Angeles on Saturday as the Sand Fire continued to rage less than 40 miles away from the city's downtown.
Darby will continue to deliver locally heavy rain, gusty winds and rough surf to Hawaii into early Monday. But the tropical storm will provide long-term benefits.
Gusty thunderstorms will target the northeastern United States on Monday, but will fail to sweep away the baking heat wave gripping the region.
Dangerous heat will surge northward and send temperatures soaring across the northwestern United States during the final week of July.
Downpours will spread from the lower Mississippi Valley to eastern and central Texas early this week, delivering needed rain but raising the concern for flash flooding.
With the heat of summer comes many unwelcomed pests, including mosquitoes, ants, fruit flies, wasps and stink bugs, into outdoor spaces and homes.
Tucson, AZ (1952)
60-mph winds ripped roofs off an apartment complex and an airplane hangar, sweeping dust and sand through the city and leaving 200 persons homeless.
North Carolina (1975)
Lightning killed 13 cows during a thunderstorm at Kenansville. Heavy rains elsewhere in the state forced the Tar River out of its banks at Greenville, causing 14 families to evacuate their homes.
New York (1975)
Severe thunderstorms in western and central NY: lightning struck a city park in Rochester injuring 12 children, all were playing on a metal jungle gym. One patrolman described the scene as if "someone threw a stick of dynamite in the middle of the crowd and it blew."