When the Christmas goose is finally all eaten, icy paths are not far behind. It helps to know all the alternatives to prevent slipping, sliding, and accidents.
There are two main ways. One is to melt ice down to bare surfaces. The other is to cover the ice with something gritty or not slippery. When ice builds up thicker and thicker, it takes a lot of time until it melts all the way down, so ideally one should try to keep it under control.
Melting is done with soluble salts which lower the freezing point of water. If it can't freeze, it stays liquid and non-slippery, then evaporates when the air is clear.The common salts are Sodium Chloride which is table salt, and Calcium Chloride because both of these have freezing points well below that of water. Plain water freezes at +32° F., while sodium chloride's minimal freezing temperature is minus -21° and calcium chloride's is minus -55°. The more salt, the lower the freezing temperature will be.
Calcium Chloride is less damaging to plants but costs considerably more than table salt. Cost may be an important factor if one is doing a huge area, but it doesn't add up to much more for home use. Calcium Chloride is better at lower temperatures, while Sodium Chloride is generally used when it isn't so cold. During storage, both absorb water from the air and can cake, especially the calcium. Occasionally potassium chloride is also used, too.
Hawaii will escape the worst, but not all of Guillermo's impacts as the tropical storm passes north of the islands Wednesday through Thursday.
A line of violent thunderstorms tore across Massachusetts, including the Boston area, Tuesday afternoon.
The Northeast will catch a break from heat and humidity for the remainder of the week.
Typhoon Soudelor in the western Pacific Ocean will remain a powerful tropical cyclone this week eventually threatening Taiwan and eastern China.
An area of low pressure spinning off the coast of the Carolinas is attempting to obtain some tropical characteristics.
Two spectators were killed and at least another 32 people were injured Monday evening, as strong storms forced a circus tent to collapse in Lancaster, New Hampshire.
Delaware Co., PA (1843)
Delaware County flood. Darby, Drum, Ridley and Chester creeks were turned to raging rivers by high intensity rains. A total of 16" of rain in 3 hours, 5.5" in 40 minutes. 19 people were killed and 32 county bridges were lost at a replacement cost of $25,000.
Persian Gulf (1924)
Water temperature of 96 degrees as measured by a ship.
Ice Harbor Dam, WA (1961)
Temperature of 118 degrees - hottest ever in Washington state.