Climate change has brought once lively and loud habitats to utter silence as their inhabitants of birds, frogs and insects have either vanished or drastically changed their migration patterns, according to researchers.
A relatively new study known as biophony, or the signature of collective sounds that occur in any given habitat at any given time, has provided scientific evidence to show that the sounds of nature have been altered by both global warming and human endeavors.
"Biophony is changing," bioacoustician and founding father of the research, Bernie Krause, said. "What was present 20 years ago or so has changed so radically that you wouldn't recognize the habitat from its voice of 20 years ago."
Krause has recorded soundscapes for 45 years in a variety of locations both in the U.S. and internationally. During a TED talk in Edinburg, Scotland, Krause stated that of these soundscapes, "50 percent of his archive comes from habitats so radically altered that they are altogether silent or can no longer be heard in their original form."
While soundscape research has not been fully developed, hypotheses for the causes of these changes have been formed.
"My hunch from my work is that it has a lot to do with global warming," Krause said. "Springtime is occurring almost two weeks earlier than it was even 20 years ago."
The early onset of spring has brought migratory species to their migration and breeding grounds much earlier than years before, according to research by the National Center for Biotechnology Information.
"The breeding and migration cycles are out of sync with what's occurring in the natural habitats," Krause said.
Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar speaks during a news conference in Austin, Texas, on Thursday, March 11, 2010. The Interior Department report says global climate change poses a significant threat to migratory bird populations already stressed by the loss of habitat and environmental pollution. (AP Photo/Thao Nguyen)
Due to these changes, typical food sources are not yet available or are limited in these locations.
In regards to songbirds, when food availability is impacted they will move immediately, according to Vice President for Program Development of the American Bird Conservancy Michael Parr.
This lack of food has caused a change in the patterns and diversity of the birds in these areas and as a result has diminished the original forms of the areas' soundscapes.
Aside from climate change, human endeavors also contribute to the imminent changes in nature's biophony.
"A large part of the reasons, aside from climate change, is human endeavor; mining and logging," Krause said. "The pressure is so intense on these habitats that a lot of change is occurring as a result of habitat destruction."
As these excavations continue, studying the soundscapes and biophony of the environment can show the changes that occur throughout a multitude of habitats.
"The eye doesn't always tell us the truth; it is easy to deceive," Krause said. "But the ear, in 15 seconds, can tell whether or not a habitat is healthy or whether it is under stress. We don't have to count trees, grasses, shrubs, mammals and birds."
Winterlike conditions will continue to press south and east across the Intermountain West into Thanksgiving.
A powerful 7.6 magnitude earthquake struck near the Peru-Brazil border region shortly before 6 p.m. local time Tuesday evening, the U.S. Geological Survey said. A second 7.6 earthquake occurred about five minutes later.
While Atlanta has received above-average rainfall so far this month, dry and calm conditions are forecast for the area this week.
Compared to Thanksgiving Day in 2014, this Thanksgiving will be substantially warmer in the Northeast.
Hurricane Sandra, located hundreds of miles southwest of Mexico, is becoming better organized and will likely track northward through the rest of the week.
A few days of drier weather is expected across southern India before downpours return this weekend.
Astoria, Or (1998)
5.56 inches of rain fell, setting a new all-time record. the previous rainfall record was 4.53 inches from January 9, 1966.
Great Appalachian Storm (24th-26th) developed greatest wind force, deepest snow, most severe early-season cold in history of the Northeast: 18.8 inches of snow at Akron, OH; Youngstown, OH, had a maximum 24-hour snowfall of 20.7 inches and a maximum single storm total of 28.7 inches; Steubenville, OH, had a maximum single storm total of 36.3 inches; Pittsburgh, PA, had a maximum 24-hour snowfall of 20.1 inches and a maximum single storm total of 27.7 inches; and Charleston, WV had a maximum 24-hour snowfall of 15.1 inches and a maximum single storm total of 25.6 inches. At coastal stations such as Newark and Boston single-minute wind speeds in excess of 80 mph were registered. There was a 108 mph gust at Newark. Peak gusts of 110 were noticed at Concord, NH; 108 mph at Newark, NJ; and 100 mph at Hartford, CT. Atop Mt. Washington, a wind gust of 160 mph hit from the southeast early on the 26th. Central Park, in the heart of sheltered Manhattan Island, set an 80-year record of 70 mph.
Wilkes-Barre/ Scranton (1971)
Heavy snowfall in the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton area. It started to snow the night before, and by about noon Thanksgiving Day 11/25/71, 20.5 inches of snow was reported on the ground at the Avoca, PA airport. Some of the surrounding areas had even more snow. Dallas, PA, had 27 inches and parts of the Poconos had as much as 30 inches. Barn roofs collapsed, power lines were downed, and tree branches were broken. The majority of the snow fell within 12 hours.