There are two easy facts to differentiate between hail and sleet: time of year and size. Using these essentials, it is easy to identify what kind of frozen precipitation is falling.
This picture of a record-sized hail ball is courtesy of NOAA.
Hail occurs during severe weather. Hail is the formed when an object, including dust or particles in the air, collides with supercooled water. As the water freezes around the object, it begins to form an ice pellet. To understand this, you have to remember that warm air rises and cool air sinks (the same as heating or cooling in your house) this is because colder air is more dense than warmer air. Normally, warm air is very buoyant in the clouds that are associated with thunderstorms. This buoyancy causes these clouds to rise higher into the atmosphere past the freezing level.
The length of time the ice pellet stays in the cloud is a representation of how large it will be when it falls to the ground. How does it increase in size? Inside the cloud, there are a series of updrafts. The pellet will continue to be tossed up and down, adding layers of ice, until it becomes too heavy for the updraft. When the hail becomes too heavy, it then falls to the ground. Usually accompanying severe thunderstorms, hail can be a variety of sizes, many times correlating with the intensity of the thunderstorms. Certain hail can get as large as golf balls, softballs or even larger! The largest hailstone ever found was in Vivian, S.D., it weighed 1.9 pounds and measured 8 inches in diameter with an 18.5-inch circumference.
Sleet occurs during winter weather and is a type of winter precipitation. All precipitation falls out of a cloud as snow. In certain instances, in the winter, the snowflake will go through a warmer layer and begin to melt. As it continues to fall, it will then proceed through a colder layer and freeze into an ice pellet or ball, very similar to hail. Unlike hail, the pellet only "falls" once and is generally very tiny in size.
Why can different types of precipitation be seen on Earth while temperatures remain constant?
Dangerous flash flooding is captured as an arroyo becomes filled with water in Carson Valley, Nevada.
The RealFeel Temperature uses an equation to determine how it actually feels outside.
Knowing what the different advisories, watches, and warnings mean will lead to more informed decision making when a winter storm threatens a particular area.
How can you determine if and when the ice is thick enough for safely going out on?
Seeking shelter in the event of a tornado could save your life, but is there really any safe place to hide?
Driving on a 90-degree angle away from the tornado is a good strategy to follow in order to distance yourself from the tornado.
Supercell thunderstorms have been responsible for major tornadoes that have demolished parts of the U.S.
After a cold, clear winter night without much wind, the ground and nearby tree branches may be covered by tiny, white ice crystals.
A major cause of post-snow flooding are ice jams in waterways.
November 1972 was one of the wettest on record for the Northeastern U.S. As of the 27th, NYC had its wettest November ever with 11.36 inches. This broke the old record of 9.97 inches. Binghamton, NY, had a monthly total of 7.11 inches -- the wettest November in the 75-year history of record keeping at Broome County Airport. Binghamton also had 19.4 inches of snow -- exactly a foot above normal.
Minneapolis, MN (1983)
With 13 inches from the latest storm - set new monthly record snow for snow with 29 inches. This record was broken during November 1991.
Tropical Storm Karen brought wind and flooding rains to western Cuba.